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Lens replacement surgery also can correct myopia (nearsightedness), but generally it is not recommended when LASIK, PRK or Phakic IOLs are available.

The procedure for refractive lens exchange is virtually identical to cataract surgery. The difference is that in RLE, the lens being replaced is clear, rather than a cloudy lens due to a cataract. As in cataract surgery, three types of IOLs are available to replace your natural lens, depending on your vision needs and the health of your eyes. They are:

  • Monofocal fixed-focus IOLs. Monofocal lenses provide clear vision at distance, intermediate or near ranges – but not all three at once. Toric IOLs to correct astigmatism also are classified as monofocal IOLs.
  • Multifocal IOLs. A multifocal lens provides clear vision at multiple distances.
  • Accommodating IOLs. An accommodating IOL is a type of monofocal lens that enables focus at multiple distances by shifting its position in the eye.

With intraocular lenses, there is no “one size fits all,” and your eye surgeon will recommend an IOL that is most suitable for your individual needs.

What is Keratoconus?

As light enters the eye, it is refracted, or bent, by the outside shape of the cornea. The curvature of cornea helps to determine how well our eye can focus on object on to the retina.

In Keratoconus, this curvature takes the shape of a cone slowly with progressive thinning and bulging of the cornea leading to visual distortion. It can occur in one or both eyes and often occur in person’s teen or early 20s.


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  • Glare
  • Haloes/ Starburst/ Ghosting of images
  • Multiple images
  • Blurred vision
  • Strain, irritation, itching and excessive eye rubbing
  • Continuous Headache

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What are the treatment options available?

In the early stages of keratoconus, the only treatment required may be prescription glasses to correct your vision. Unfortunately, this is a progressive condition so your vision will eventually deteriorate, sometimes quite rapidly.

    • Spectacles (For milder stage with stable conditions)
    • INTACS Implants (For Progressive conditions)
    • C3R (For Progressive conditions)
  • Corneal transplant/ Keratoplasty ( for Very Advanced Stages)

What is C3R?

C3R is collagen cross linking is a non invasive strengthening procedure in which medicine drops are applied on the cornea and then activated with Ultraviolet light. This helps in reducing the bulging of the cornea.



The cause is not fully understood, although there are indications it may be a genetic condition.

Keratoconus is usually considered a rare condition, with previous studies suggesting it affects 1 in every 2000 people. However, recent work indicates that the incidence could be much higher – perhaps as much as 1 in 50 people. Both sexes are equally affected and most cases are diagnosed between the ages of 15 to 30 years.

Keratoconus has also been linked to other medical conditions, such as glaucoma, hay fever and sleep apnoea. Continuous or vigorous eye rubbing in susceptible individuals may lead to the development of keratoconus and should be avoided.